It is necessary "to throw" tens of thousands of tons of freights in space. But disposable carriers like modern rockets, including most perfect "Proton", reusable "shuttles" do not cope with such task today.
SKES will work according to the accumulative scheme. The solar energy translated in electric gathers in accumulators or condensers, and then is transferred to the consumer in the form of microwave energy in those 7 - 8 minutes while the station flies by within direct visibility.
Let's mention the concentrator of one more type - luminescent. The principle of its work is simple. In an optical plate luminiferous substances are interspersed. Light getting into a plate excites atoms of a phosphor, they pereizluchat the absorbed photons which because of full internal reflection cannot break through surfaces any more and finish the way on the photocollecting side.
Let's not forget only that the aerodynamic stream which escaped from the turbine channel should be slowed down again. This return task is carried out by the system which is specularly displaying the entrance: the diffuser ("dilator") and air ducts with the dumping devices (DD) on the ends. Designs of VU and MOUSTACHE are besides identical. The only difference - diameters of elements of the taking-away system have to be more, than at their entrance analogs to provide effective difference of pressure.
Probably, you already guessed that the principle of work of a prizmakon is based on the phenomenon of full internal reflection when the beam entering optically more dense environment deviates so that to it already more difficult to overcome the following limit of the section, and at certain, above critical for this substance a hade - it is impossible.
How it occurs? In detail about it it is possible to read in the textbook of physics. We will explain in brief. The forbidden power zones in some semiconductors on width just correspond to the size of energy of quantum of light. The forbidden zone is a potential barrier which the electron needs to overcome at a pereskoka from one on other atom of a crystal lattice. Having absorbed a photon, the electron finds mobility Means, there can be an electric current. After all by definition current is the directed movement of electric charges.
If now to combine two semiconductors (is most often used silicon) alloyed by different impurity (one, owing to incoincident valencies, introduces uncompensated electrons in initial substance - the n-type semiconductor, and another, whose valency turns out less. leads to emergence of holes, carriers of positive charges - the semiconductor r-type, on their border n - - transition is formed. Light is not present - current is absent. As soon as semiconductor to light, excess electrons in a r-zone will begin to flow.
Fresnel's lens belongs to other type of concentrators - refracting-. It consists of the whole set of the prisms made by tops together so the lens surface turned to the Sun reminds the stretched accordion.
Stream speed in the turbine channel is regulated by simple rotation of VU. At a light breeze air inlets are guided "person" to it, and in process of strengthening turn away more and more if it is necessary. Dumping devices, naturally, are always directed by "back" by a wind. Microprocessor blocks of control and control of their electric drives, the sensor of the direction of a wind and the central processor with the program which is sewn up in it coordinate work of all VU and MOUSTACHE. The mode of regulation can quite be not smooth, but discrete, breakthrough that will simplify a control system.
One of the last development - a tubular collector with the concentrator like. It consists of glass cylindrical tubes in which on a half of radius the transparent silicon melted optically - organic rubber was filled in. When it hardened, the prismatic concentrator which is built in a tube turned out.
to high temperatures. It is gradually already a lot of heliostations at which current is developed by the generators rotated by the steam turbine (as you can see, after all did not do without the electric power). The sun, besides, melts metals, in heliofurnaces receive especially pure chemicals. However, gelio-technologies is a subject of separate article. We will stop on household use of solar thermal energy.
But from the received formula also other defect of such "lobovny" approach is visible: FROM it is connected with the area of 3 in direct ratio, linearly. But influence of speed of V is much stronger - dependence already cubic here. This difference is how important, we will explain on an example.